[Grammar] Reversive forms

-ul-, -un-, -uk-

The verb formed with the radical plus the above suffixes indicates an opposite action to the one described with the initial verb. There exist two forms of reversive suffixes: active and passive.

Reversive active suffixes: -ul-, -un-

Verbs thus formed are transitive. They need an object.


  • kukànga (fermer, to close) → kukangula (ouvrir, to open)
  • kuvwàla (vêtir, to put clothes on) → kuvùùla (dévêtir, to put clothes off)
  • kulamika (coller, attacher, to glue, to attach) → kulamuna (détacher, to detach)


Reversive passive suffix : -uk-

Verbs including this suffix are intransitive and imply a state or a condition in which the subject sustains an opposite action.


  • kukanga (fermer, to close) → kukanguka (s’ouvrir, to be opened)
  • kubutula (exterminer, exterminate) → kubutuka (se faire exterminer , to be exterminated)
  • kupapula (effrayer, to frighten) → kupapuka (s’effrayer, to be frightened)
  • kwambula (porter, to lift up) → kwambuka (se faire porter, to be lifted)

Source: CRIC

Mapping Armed Groups in Eastern Congo – 4th Edition

Regular readers may have noticed that this website features a mapping of armed groups in eastern Congo which is periodically updated and refined (three times a year). Today, the 4th edition of this complicated and always unfinished exercise goes online and adds to the yet existing mappings.

As stated repeatedly in the lengthy disclaimer necessary due to the political connotations and dangers of misinterpreting this work, it makes sense to also here underline the following explanations:

The mapping describes the yones of influence, not necessarily full control, for the indicated armed groups and fixed (official) positions for the national army. Changes in the subsequent maps reflect either changes on the ground or (for the time being) refinements relating to improved information.

This exercise does not entail any claim of full accuracy and merely represents an approximate assessment of the situation with uncertainty and potential errors always remaining.

As earlier…

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RDC : Joseph Kabila souhaite le renforcement de la présence de la Monusco à Beni

Congolese Action Youth Platform


Dans son adresse vendredi 31 octobre à la population de Beni au Nord-Kivu, le président de la RDC, Joseph Kabila, souhaite voir la Monusco renforcer sa présence dans cette zone pour faire face aux problèmes d’insécurité. Arrivé dans cette ville depuis trois jours, le chef de l’Etat a également mis en garde les rebelles ougandais de l’ADF accusés d’avoir tué environ quatre-vingts personnes en un mois.

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